Maryland

59 of 102 lower-income occupations licensed

11th most burdensome licensing laws

20th most broadly and onerously licensed state

Maryland’s licensing laws for lower-income occupations are the 11th most burdensome. On average, Maryland’s barriers to entry into these occupations are $288 in fees, 529 days lost to education and experience, and about one exam. Because it licenses slightly fewer occupations than similarly burdensome states—59 of the 102 studied here—Maryland ranks as the nation’s 20th most broadly and onerously licensed state.

Maryland licenses several occupations that are rarely licensed elsewhere. For example, few other states license packers (five), tree trimmers (six), animal trainers (eight), upholsterers (nine) or farm labor contractors (nine). Among those, tree trimmers face particularly steep burdens. To obtain a license, they must demonstrate two years of education and one year of experience (1,095 days total), pass an exam, and pay a $30 fee. With so few states licensing tree trimmers, it is questionable for Maryland to license them at all, let alone so onerously.

Maryland also imposes high education and experience requirements on some occupations that seem excessive compared to those for other occupations that may present greater risks to the public. For example, EMTs are deemed competent to work as first responders after only 165 hours (approximately 39 days) of education. Meanwhile, barbers must complete 1,200 hours (roughly 280 days) of education and cosmetologists 1,500 hours (roughly 350 days) before becoming licensed. To expand opportunity, Maryland should reduce, if not repeal, inconsistent or irrational burdens like these, or—if government regulation is necessary—replace them with less restrictive regulatory alternatives.

Burden Rank Occupation States Licensed Fees Estimated Calendar Days Lost Education Experience Exams Min. Grade Min. Age
1 Preschool Teacher, Public School 50 $436 2555 4 years 3 years 3 0 0
2 Earth Driller, Water Well 51 $750 2190 6 years 3 0 18
3 HVAC Contractor (Commercial) 37 $405 2190 6 years 2 0 0
3 HVAC Contractor (Residential) 35 $405 2190 6 years 2 0 0
5 Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Commercial) 37 $165 2190 6 years 2 0 0
5 Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Residential) 36 $165 2190 6 years 2 0 0
7 Athletic Trainer 49 $600 1460 4 years 1 0 18
8 Midwife, Direct Entry 28 $1920 1095 3 years 1 12 21
9 Tree Trimmer 7 $30 1095 2 years 1 years 1 0 18
10 Coach, Head (High School Sports) 48 $0 734 21.5 clock hours 2 years 0 12 23
11 Veterinary Technician 36 $395 730 2 years 2 0 18
12 Landscape Contractor (Residential) 48 $533 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (Residential) 30 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential) 30 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Door Repair Contractor (Residential) 29 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential) 30 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Floor Sander Contractor (Residential) 27 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Glazier Contractor (Residential) 30 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Insulation Contractor (Residential) 30 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential) 30 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Mason Contractor (Residential) 31 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Painting Contractor (Residential) 28 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Paving Contractor (Residential) 28 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Sheet Metal Contractor, Other (Residential) 31 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
13 Terrazzo Contractor (Residential) 28 $433 730 2 years 1 0 18
26 Massage Therapist 44 $698 560 600 clock hours and 60 Credit Hours 2 0 18
27 Cosmetologist 51 $104 350 1500 clock hours 2 9 17
28 Vegetation Pesticide Applicator 51 $75 365 1 years 4 0 18
29 Pest Control Applicator 51 $225 365 1 years 2 0 18
30 Skin Care Specialist 50 $104 140 600 clock hours 2 9 17
31 Barber 51 $50 280 1200 clock hours 2 0 0
32 Manicurist 50 $104 58 250 clock hours 2 9 17
33 Child Care Home, Family 44 $52 5 27 clock hours 0 12 18
34 School Bus Driver 51 $90 3 6 clock hours 9 clock hours 6 0 21
35 Bus Driver, City/Transit 51 $90 0 5 0 18
35 Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer 51 $90 0 5 0 18
37 Taxi Driver/Chauffeur 16 $53 182 6 months 0 0 0
38 Truck Driver, Other 51 $90 0 4 0 18
39 Emergency Medical Technician 51 $60 39 165 clock hours 2 0 16
40 Crane Operator 18 $225 0 2 0 18
41 Pharmacy Technician 44 $63 37 160 clock hours 1 0 17
42 Security Alarm Installer 37 $133 0 0 0 18
43 Bill Collection Agency 31 $700 0 0 0 0
44 Gaming Cage Worker 29 $437 0 0 0 0
44 Gaming Dealer 28 $437 0 0 0 0
44 Gaming Supervisor 30 $437 0 0 0 0
44 Slot Supervisor 28 $437 0 0 0 0
48 Fisher, Commercial 43 $300 0 0 0 0
49 Milk Sampler 42 $50 1 1 days 1 0 0
50 Taxidermist 28 $50 0 1 0 0
50 Wildlife Control Operator 23 $50 0 1 0 0
52 Landscape Contractor (Commercial) 47 $100 0 0 0 0
53 Animal Breeder 28 $62 0 0 0 0
54 Travel Guide 37 $56 0 0 0 0
55 Upholsterer 10 $50 0 0 0 0
56 Packer 6 $30 0 0 0 0
57 Farm Labor Contractor 10 $25 0 0 0 0
58 Security Guard, Unarmed 34 $15 0 0 0 0
59 Animal Trainer 9 $5 0 0 0 0

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