Midwife, Direct Entry

Direct-entry midwives, or lay midwives, are non-nurses who provide prenatal care and childbirth assistance.
License required by 28 states
4th most burdensome licensing requirements
33rd most widely and onerously licensed occupation

Twenty-eight states license direct-entry midwives. (In nine states, the occupation is or appears to be prohibited.) On average, licensed states require $1,383 in fees, more than three years (1,152 days) of education and experience, and around one exam—the fourth most burdensome requirements of the 102 occupations studied. However, because direct-entry midwives are licensed by just over half of states, the occupation is the 33rd most widely and onerously licensed.

License requirements are fairly uniform across states: 20 states require three years of education, all require one or two exams, and 24 require a high school diploma. However, there is some variation. For example, Indiana requires over seven years of education and experience (about 2,695 days, or three years of midwife school plus observation of or participation in 80 births), while Texas requires only one year of education. Fees also vary greatly, from $822 in New York to $2,600 in Wyoming.

Burden Rank State States Licensed Fees Estimated Calendar Days Lost Education Experience Exams Minimum Grade Minimum Age
1 Indiana 28 $1,000.00 2,695 3 years 80 births 1 12 21
2 New York 28 $822.00 2,190 6 years - 1 0 21
3 Montana 28 $1,400.00 1,295 3 years 10 births 1 12 21
4 Colorado 28 $2,100.00 1,195 3 years 5 births 1 12 19
5 Washington 28 $1,674.00 1,095 3 years - 2 12 21
6 Louisiana 28 $1,488.00 1,095 3 years - 2 12 21
7 Arizona 28 $1,150.00 1,095 3 years - 2 12 21
8 Maryland 28 $1,920.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 21
9 Wyoming 28 $2,600.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
10 Oregon 28 $1,650.00 1,095 3 years - 2 12 0
11 Florida 28 $1,605.00 1,095 3 years and 1 clock hours - 1 12 21
12 Delaware 28 $1,253.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 21
13 New Hampshire 28 $1,210.00 1,095 3 years - 2 12 0
14 South Carolina 28 $1,200.00 1,095 3 years - 2 12 0
15 Tennessee 28 $2,042.65 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
16 New Mexico 28 $1,120.00 1,095 3 years - 2 12 0
17 Idaho 28 $2,000.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
18 Virginia 28 $1,277.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
19 Minnesota 28 $1,200.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
20 Utah 28 $1,100.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
20 Vermont 28 $1,100.00 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
22 South Dakota 28 $1,043.25 1,095 3 years - 1 12 0
23 New Jersey 28 $1,210.00 1,095 3 years - 1 0 18
24 California 28 $1,249.00 1,095 3 years - 1 0 0
25 Rhode Island 28 $1,080.00 1,095 3 years - 1 0 0
26 Arkansas 28 $900.00 800 - 40 births 2 12 0
27 Wisconsin 28 $1,085.00 730 2 years - 1 12 0
28 Texas 28 $1,235.00 365 1 years - 2 12 0
29 Alabama 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 Georgia 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 Illinois 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 Iowa 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 Kentucky 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 Nebraska 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 Nevada 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 North Carolina 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0
29 North Dakota 28 $0.00 0 - - 0 0 0