Minnesota

34 of 102 lower-income occupations licensed
29th most burdensome licensing laws
46th most broadly and onerously licensed state

Minnesota is one of the better states in the nation for occupational licensing, ranking as only the 46th most broadly and onerously licensed state for lower-income occupations. It licenses 34 of the 102 occupations studied here, which is fewer than most states. Its laws rank as the 29th most burdensome and require, on average, $238 in fees, 300 days of education and experience, and around two exams.

Despite its better-than-average rankings, Minnesota licenses some occupations that are rarely licensed elsewhere. For example, few other states license electrical helpers (just one), packers (five), title examiners (six) or dental assistants (eight). Workers in these occupations are allowed to operate in most states without state licensure, calling into question why Minnesota deems licensure necessary. Minnesota also licenses dental assistants more stringently than the few other states that license the occupation, requiring $681 in fees, an estimated 425 days of education and three exams. By comparison, the average requirements across licensed states are just $138 in fees, 92 days of education and experience, and one exam.

Minnesota licenses dental assistants so onerously that it is easier to become an EMT than it is to become a dental assistant. EMTs must complete just 150 hours (roughly 35 days) of education, meaning that dental assistants need 12 times as much schooling. Cosmetologists and barbers also face more stringent licensing requirements than EMTs. Cosmetologists must demonstrate 10 times as much education (1,550 hours or roughly 362 days) and barbers almost 18 times as much (1,500 hours each of education and experience, equivalent to 613 days). Minnesota could reduce barriers to employment in lower-income occupations by reducing or repealing such high education and experience requirements, or—if government regulation is necessary—by replacing occupational licenses with less restrictive regulatory alternatives.

Burden Rank Occupation Fees Estimated Calendar Days Lost Education Experience Exams Minimum Grade Minimum Age
1 Preschool Teacher, Public School $343 1460 4 years - 3 0 0
2 Earth Driller, Water Well $325 1460 - 4 years 2 0 0
3 Athletic Trainer $465 1460 4 years - 1 0 0
4 Midwife, Direct Entry $1200 1095 3 years - 1 12 0
5 Fire Alarm Installer $261 1095 - 3 years 1 0 0
5 Security Alarm Installer $261 1095 - 3 years 1 0 0
7 Pest Control Applicator $400 730 - 2 years 2 0 0
8 Barber $182 613 1500 clock hours 1500 clock hours 4 10 0
9 Dental Assistant $681 425 303.33 Days - 3 0 0
10 Cosmetologist $285 362 1550 clock hours - 3 12 0
11 Makeup Artist $285 140 600 clock hours - 3 12 0
11 Skin Care Specialist $285 140 600 clock hours - 3 12 0
13 Manicurist $285 82 350 clock hours - 3 12 0
14 Emergency Medical Technician $80 35 150 clock hours - 2 12 18
15 Pharmacy Technician $38 0 - - 0 12 18
16 School Bus Driver $39 0 - - 6 0 18
17 Bus Driver, City/Transit $33 0 - - 5 0 18
18 Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer $24 0 - - 5 0 18
19 Truck Driver, Other $36 0 - - 4 0 18
20 Crane Operator $225 0 - - 2 0 18
21 Bill Collection Agency $1050 0 - - 0 0 0
22 Mobile Home Installer $383 0 - - 2 0 0
23 Child Care Home, Family $65 1 - 4 clock hours 0 0 18
24 Auctioneer $20 0 - - 0 0 18
25 Electrical Helper $14 0 - - 0 0 17
26 Vegetation Pesticide Applicator $75 0 - - 2 0 0
27 Title Examiner $90 0 - - 1 0 0
28 Animal Breeder $160 0 - - 0 0 0
29 Coach, Head (High School Sports) $0 14 60 clock hours - 0 0 0
30 Landscape Contractor (Commercial) $150 0 - - 0 0 0
30 Landscape Contractor (Residential) $150 0 - - 0 0 0
32 Fisher, Commercial $120 0 - - 0 0 0
33 Taxidermist $44 0 - - 0 0 0
34 Packer $40 0 - - 0 0 0