New York

41 of 102 lower-income occupations licensed
32nd most burdensome licensing requirements
37th most widely and onerously licensed occupation

New York licenses 41 of the 102 lower-income occupations studied here, which is fewer than most other states. Its laws are the 32nd most burdensome, requiring an average of $279 in fees, 275 days of education and experience, and around two exams. New York ranks as the 37th most broadly and onerously licensed state.

Despite licensing fewer occupations than average, New York licenses some occupations that are rarely licensed elsewhere. For example, few other states license animal trainers (eight), upholsterers (nine), farm labor contractors (nine) or crane operators (17). Not only are crane operators unlicensed by most states, but they also face particularly heavy burdens in New York. Aspiring crane operators in the Empire State must demonstrate three years (1,095 days) of experience before they can work. But the average education and experience required of crane operators across licensed states is only 222 days of education and experience—just one fifth of the time required by New York. New York also requires much higher fees for some occupations than other states. While the national average fees for pesticide applicator licenses are $260, New York charges $3,000 for its vegetation pesticide applicator license and $2,200 for its pest control applicator one.

New York also imposes burdens on some occupations that seem excessive compared to those for other occupations that may present greater risks to the public. For example, its education requirements for veterinary technicians are considerably higher than those for EMTs, who provide emergency first aid to humans. Aspiring EMTs study for about a month (118 hours or an estimated 28 days), while would-be vet techs need 26 times more education—two years (730 days)—to become licensed. New York should evaluate whether such onerous licensing requirements can be reduced, repealed or—if government regulation is necessary—replaced with less restrictive regulatory alternatives.

Occupation Fees Estimated Calendar Days Lost Education Experience Exams Minimum Grade Minimum Age
Animal Breeder $100 0 - - 0 0 0
Animal Trainer $90 0 - - 0 0 0
Barber $70 54 3 clock hours and 228 clock hours - 3 0 17
Bus Driver, City/Transit $50 0 - - 5 0 18
Child Care Home, Family $25 369 - 1 years and 26 clock hours 0 0 18
Coach, Head (High School Sports) $290 1125 130 clock hours 3 years 0 0 0
Cosmetologist $70 233 1000 clock hours - 2 0 17
Crane Operator $150 1095 - 3 years 2 0 21
Earth Driller, Water Well $150 0 - - 2 0 0
Emergency Medical Technician $20 28 118 clock hours - 2 0 18
Farm Labor Contractor $103 0 - - 0 0 0
Fire Alarm Installer $285 19 81 clock hours - 1 0 18
Fisher, Commercial $250 0 - - 0 0 16
Gaming Cage Worker $105 0 - - 0 0 0
Gaming Dealer $105 0 - - 0 0 0
Gaming Supervisor $105 0 - - 0 0 0
Landscape Contractor (Commercial) $100 0 - - 0 0 0
Landscape Contractor (Residential) $100 0 - - 0 0 0
Makeup Artist $70 140 600 clock hours - 2 0 17
Manicurist $70 58 250 clock hours - 2 0 17
Massage Therapist $368 233 1000 clock hours - 1 12 18
Midwife, Direct Entry $822 2190 6 years - 1 0 21
Mobile Home Installer $200 733 16 clock hours 2 years 1 12 0
Optician $333 730 2 years - 2 12 18
Pest Control Applicator $2200 375 42 clock hours 1 years 4 0 17
Preschool Teacher, Public School $914 2555 4 years 3 years 4 0 0
School Bus Driver $50 0 2 clock hours - 6 0 21
Security Alarm Installer $287 19 81 clock hours - 1 0 18
Security Guard, Unarmed $135 1 8 clock hours - 1 0 18
Shampooer $70 54 231 clock hours - 3 0 17
Skin Care Specialist $70 140 600 clock hours - 2 0 17
Slot Supervisor $105 0 - - 0 0 0
Taxi Driver/Chauffeur $0 0 - - 0 0 18
Travel Guide $100 0 - - 1 0 18
Truck Driver, Other $50 0 - - 4 0 18
Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer $50 0 - - 5 0 21
Upholsterer $150 0 - - 0 0 0
Vegetation Pesticide Applicator $3000 380 66 clock hours 1 years 8 0 17
Veterinary Technician $177 730 2 years - 1 0 0
Weigher $15 0 - - 0 0 0
Wildlife Control Operator $50 0 - - 1 0 0