In 2014, Montana man kills grizzly bear without a permit. (The authorities are none the wiser until months later when his ex-wife’s boyfriend rats him out.) The authorities: Which is a federal crime. Ninth Circuit: But it’s a petty crime (punishable by up to six months and a $25k fine), so the Sixth Amendment right to a jury trial doesn’t apply. Still, his conviction is vacated because the trial judge ignored his subjective belief that he was acting in self-defense.