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Kyle Sweetland

Kyle Sweetland is a researcher at the Institute for Justice, where he provides research and analysis on issues central to the Institute’s mission.

He is a co-author of IJ’s The Price of Taxation by Citation and the second edition of License to Work. His work has appeared in academic journals such as Economic Affairs and Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy.

Prior to joining IJ, Kyle participated in the Young Leaders Program at the Heritage Foundation.  He holds a bachelor’s in business economics and public policy from Indiana University Southeast.

Research and Reports

  • June 2, 2021    |    Scholarly Articles

    This study examines taxation by citation—local governments using code enforcement and the justice system to raise revenue rather than solely to advance public health and safety. It does so through a detailed case study of Morrow, Riverdale, and Clarkston, three Georgia cities with a history of prolific revenue generation through fines and fees from traffic…

  • October 24, 2019    |    Strategic Research

    The Price of Taxation by Citation

    Case Studies of Three Georgia Cities That Rely Heavily on Fines and Fees

    Taxation by citation is when local governments use their power to enforce traffic and other ordinances to raise revenue rather than solely to protect the public. This report explores the phenomenon via case studies of three Georgia cities that have historically relied on fines and fees from ordinance violations for large proportions of their revenues.…

  • October 18, 2018    |    Scholarly Articles

    This study follows up an earlier study in which we examined the scope and burden of 102 occupational licensing laws in the United States for low‐ and moderate‐income occupations. Using data collected in 2017, findings indicate that the licences studied require of aspiring workers, on average, US$262 in fees, one exam, and about 12 months…

  • November 13, 2017    |    Strategic Research

    Today, more Americans than ever must get a government permission slip before they can earn an honest living, thanks to the spread of occupational licensing laws. Licensing laws now guard entry into hundreds of occupations, including jobs that offer upward mobility to those of modest means, such as cosmetologist, auctioneer, athletic trainer and landscape contractor.…

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