Protecting Everyone’s Constitutional Rights Act

A State Legislative Solution to Problems Caused by the Federal Judiciary’s Creation of Qualified Immunity

Qualified immunity is a judge-made doctrine that shields local, state and federal government officials–not just police–from constitutional accountability. The U.S. Supreme Court created the doctrine in 1982 in response to civil rights claims made under the Civil Rights Act of 1871. These claims are more commonly known as “Section 1983” claims, in reference to their federal code citation—42 U.S.C. §1983.

But the immunity has no basis in the text of federal law. And it relieves an official of responsibility when, acting under “color of” state law, the official violates a person’s constitutional or civil rights. 

From political leaders to constitutional lawyers to popular musicians, there is a broad, nonpartisan consensus to end qualified immunity and restore the Civil Rights Act to address issues of accountability at the state and local levels.

Because qualified immunity is a federal creation, only the U.S. Supreme Court or Congress can end it. But state legislators can address accountability in another way.

What can state legislators do?

The Institute for Justice offers PECRA—state legislation that creates a new cause of action to vindicate constitutional rights in state courts. It guarantees that if citizens must follow the law, state and local government officials must follow the Constitution.

PECRA takes the well-established legal concept of respondeat superior–a form of vicarious liability–and applies it to state and municipal government employers. Today, this concept ensures that private employers take responsibility for their employees. When private employees commit wrongs within the scope of their employment, victims can sue their employers. For example, an injured person can sue a pizza company for the harm its delivery driver causes.

If state or local government employees violate constitution rights within the scope of employment, PECRA requires that governments stand behind their employees’ official actions. This incentivizes governments to take responsibility for hiring, training, managing and disciplining employees the way private employers do. PECRA does not create personal liability for government employees nor does it affect criminal prosecutions.

By applying a legal concept honed through centuries of common law, PECRA ensures a remedy for individuals whose rights are violated.

Model Legislation


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