Fans of the Hart-Fuller debate are gonna love this one. As will normal people who have no idea what that means. Legal philosopher HLA Hart asked whether a rule saying “no vehicles in the park” included bicycles, toy cars and airplanes. But now the D.C. Circuit has been asked, what about trailers? D.C. Circuit guru and IJ attorney Jeff Redfern explains what’s a vehicle and what isn’t according to that court’s recent opinion on fuel efficiency standards. Meanwhile out West, it’s hard to get on the ballot in Big Sky Country. IJ election expert Paul Sherman walks us through how the Ninth Circuit found Montana’s rather bizarre system of ballot access partly constitutional, but partly not. Our apologies, but there’s some math.

Truck Trailer Manufacturers Assoc. v. EPA, https://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/opinions.nsf/233083B9809082A28525878B0053FE5B/$file/16-1430-1922005.pdf
Montana Green Party v. Jacobsen, https://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2021/11/08/20-35340.pdf
HLA Hart, Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals, http://www.horty.umiacs.io/courses/readings/hart-1958-positivism-separation.pdf
Lon Fuller, Positivism and Fidelity to Law—A Reply to Professor Hart, https://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/Positivism%20and%20Fidelity%20to%20Law%20-%20A%20Reply%20to%20Professor%20Hart.pdf
HLA Hart Interview, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xgigb36aC7Y
Richard Winger’s Ballot Access News, https://ballot-access.org/
Jeff Redfern, https://ij.org/staff/jeffrey-redfern/
Paul Sherman, https://ij.org/staff/psherman/
Anthony Sanders, https://ij.org/staff/asanders/