Appendix D: Additional Resources on Forfeiture

Scholarly Articles

Carpenter, D. M. (2018, May). The questionable ethics of civil forfeiture. Freedom from Fear Magazine, 14, 24–28. http://f3magazine.unicri.it/?p=1501

Gius, M. (2018). The effects of civil and criminal forfeitures on drug-related arrests. Justice Policy Journal, 15(1), 1–15. http://www.cjcj.org/uploads/cjcj/documents/the_effects_of_civil_and_criminal_forfeitures_on_drug_related_arrests.pdf

Holcomb, J. E., Williams, M. R., Hicks, W. D., Kovandzic, T. V., & Meitl, M. B. (2018). Civil asset forfeiture laws and equitable sharing activity by the police. Criminology and Public Policy, 17(1), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12341

Kelly, B. D. (2015). Further results concerning the effects of asset forfeiture on policing. SSRN. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2647629

Kelly, B. D., & Kole, M. (2016). The effects of asset forfeiture on policing: A panel approach. Economic Inquiry, 54(1), 558–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecin.12232

Makowsky, M. D., Stratmann, T., & Tabarrok, A. (2019). To serve and collect: The fiscal and racial determinants of law enforcement. The Journal of Legal Studies, 48(1), 189–216. https://doi.org/10.1086/700589

McDonald, J. (2019, Apr. 10). Civil forfeiture hurts America’s poor. Spotlight on Poverty and Opportunity. https://spotlightonpoverty.org/spotlight-exclusives/civil-forfeiture-hurts-americas-poor/

Nicholson-Crotty, S., Nicholson-Crotty, J., Li, D., & Mughan, S. (2020). Race, representation, and assets forfeiture. International Public Management Journal, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2020.1728454

Pimental, D. (2018). Forfeiture policy in the United States: Is there hope for reform? Criminology and Public Policy, 17(1), 129­–137. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12343

Preciado, M., & Wilson, B. J. (2017). The welfare effects of civil forfeiture. Review of Behavioral Economics, 4(2), 153–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/105.00000063

Schieber, N. (2017). The civil asset forfeiture program: An analysis of the actual use, racial subjectivity, and unfairness to lower earning individuals. Economic Crime Forensics Capstones. https://digitalcommons.lasalle.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=ecf_capstones

IJ Reports

Erickson, A. C., McDonald, J., & Menjou, M. (n.d.). Forfeiture transparency and accountability: State-by-state and federal report cards. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice. https://ij.org/TransparencyReportCards

McDonald, J. (2018). Civil forfeiture, crime fighting and safeguards for the innocent. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice. https://ij.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Forfeiture-White-Paper_Final.pdf

Avelar, P. V., & McDonald, J. (2018). Forfeiture in Arizona: An Institute for Justice analysis of FY2018 reporting data. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice. https://ij.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/AZ-White-Paper-Draft_FINAL.pdf

Kelly, B. D. (2019). Fighting crime or raising revenue? Testing opposing views of forfeiture. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice. https://ij.org/report/fighting-crime-or-raising-revenue/

McDonald, J. (2020). Jetway robbery? Homeland security and cash seizures at airports. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice. https://ij.org/report/jetway-robbery/

Reports by Advocacy Organizations

Alabama Appleseed & Southern Poverty Law Center. (2018). Forfeiting your rights: How Alabama’s profit-driven civil asset forfeiture scheme undercuts due process and property rights. Montgomery, AL. https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/com_civil_asset_forfeiture_report_finalnocrops.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union of California. (2016). Civil asset forfeiture: Profiting from California’s most vulnerable (Policy Brief). https://www.aclunc.org/docs/aclu_california_civil_asset_forfeiture_report.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey. (2018). Private property, police profit: Explaining and reforming civil asset forfeiture in New Jersey. https://www.aclu-nj.org/files/2215/4453/4434/2018_ACLU_Civil_Asset_Forfeiture.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania. (2015). Forfeiture in the shadows: An investigation of civil asset forfeiture in Cumberland County. https://www.aclupa.org/sites/default/files/CumberlandCounty_Forfeiture_Report-Final.pdf

Cohen, D. (2016a). Asset forfeiture by Texas law enforcement (PolicyPerspective). Austin, TX: Texas Public Policy Foundation. https://files.texaspolicy.com/uploads/2018/08/16102143/PP-Asset-Forfeiture-by-Texas-Law-Enforcement.pdf

Cohen, D. (2016b). Rebutting common myths of civil asset forfeiture (PolicyPerspective). Austin, TX: Texas Public Policy Foundation. https://files.texaspolicy.com/uploads/2018/08/16102756/2016-12-PP29-MythsCivilAssetForfeiture-CEJ-DerekCohen.pdf

Drug Policy Alliance. (2019). Civil asset forfeiture [Fact sheet]. New York, NY. https://www.drugpolicy.org/sites/default/files/civil-asset-forfeiture-january2019_0.pdf

Guze, J. (2017). Preventing asset forfeiture abuse in North Carolina: Part 1. Raleigh, NC: John Locke Foundation. https://www.johnlocke.org/research/preventing-asset-forfeiture-abuse-in-north-carolina/

Guze, J. (2019). Preventing asset forfeiture abuse in North Carolina: Part 2. Raleigh, NC: John Locke Foundation. https://www.johnlocke.org/research/preventing-asset-forfeiture-abuse-in-north-carolina-part-2/

Honchariw, D. (2017). Who does civil asset forfeiture target most? A review of LVMPD’s forfeiture activities for fiscal year 2016. Las Vegas, NV: Nevada Policy Research Institute. http://www.npri.org/docLib/20170726_CompleteForfeitureReport.pdf

Randolph, E., & Brockway, B. (2020). Civil asset forfeitures in Georgia: Procedures, activity, reporting, and recommendations. Peachtree Corners, GA: Georgia Center for Opportunity. https://georgiaopportunity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/20-011-GCO-Civil-Asset-Forfeit_v3.pdf

Right on Crime & Pelican Institute for Public Policy. (2019). Louisiana’s not so civil asset forfeiture laws. New Orleans, LA: Pelican Institute for Public Policy. https://pelicaninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/PEL_CivilAssetForfeiture_WEB_FINAL.pdf

Roth, C. (2017). Civil forfeiture 101 (Policy Brief Vol. 2, No. 4). Wisconsin Institute for Law & Liberty. http://www.will-law.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2017-09-26-civil-forfeiture-101-policy-brief.pdf

Ruddell, B., & Jackson-Green, B. (2016). Asset forfeiture in Illinois: What it is, where it happens, and reforms the state needs. American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois. https://aclu-il.org/sites/default/files/field_documents/asset_forfeiture_in_illinois.pdf

Snead, J. (2016). An overview on recent state-level forfeiture reforms. Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation. https://www.heritage.org/crime-and-justice/report/overview-recent-state-level-forfeiture-reforms

Southern Poverty Law Center. (2017). Civil asset forfeiture: Unfair, undemocratic, and un-American. Montgomery, AL. https://www.splcenter.org/20171030/civil-asset-forfeiture-unfair-undemocratic-and-un-american

Vallas, R., Ross, T., Cox, T., Hagler, J., & Corriher, B. (2016). Forfeiting the American Dream: How civil asset forfeiture exacerbates hardship for low-income communities and communities of color. Center for American Progress. https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/01060039/CivilAssetForfeiture-reportv2.pdf

Investigative Journalism

Greenville News. TAKEN investigation. https://www.greenvilleonline.com/news/taken/

Pulitzer Center. TAKEN: How police profit from seized property: A data-driven investigation of civil asset forfeiture supported by the Pulitzer Center. https://taken.pulitzercenter.org/

St. Louis Public Radio. TAKEN: How police profit from seized property. https://apps.stlpublicradio.org/asset-forfeiture/

Government Reports

Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration. (2017). Criminal investigation enforced structuring laws primarily against legal source funds and compromised the rights of some individuals and businesses. Washington, DC. https://www.treasury.gov/tigta/auditreports/2017reports/201730025fr.pdf

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (2016). Civil rights and civil asset forfeiture in Michigan (USCCR Briefing Report). https://www.usccr.gov/pubs/docs/Michigan%20Civil%20Forfeiture%20Report_2016.pdf

U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Evaluation and Inspections Division. (2017). Review of the Department’s oversight of cash seizure and forfeiture activities. https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2017/e1702.pdf

U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General. (2020). DHS inconsistently implemented administrative forfeiture authorities under CAFRA (OIG-20-66).  https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2020-09/OIG-20-66-Aug20.pdf

Judicial Opinions

Leonard v. Texas, cert. denied, 137 S. Ct. 837, 197 L. Ed 2d 474 (2017) (Thomas, J., concurring), https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/16pdf/16-122_1b7d.pdf