You shouldn’t need a law degree to start the small business of your dreams. But too often, entrepreneurs struggle with local regulatory burdens, finding themselves trapped by high fees, long wait times, and complex paperwork. These burdens amount to a death by a thousand cuts, unless aspiring business owners can successfully navigate them before reaching opening day. Local officials must make it cheaper, faster, and simpler for entrepreneurs to start a business—and this report presents specific recommendations to make those needed changes. 

In cities across the country, the path for getting a business up and running is riddled with steep costs, frustrating delays, and confusing steps. Not only must entrepreneurs satisfy a tangled web of regulatory requirements, but they also must often do so without receiving clear guidance from local officials. Red tape on the books and officials’ poor communication and lack of transparency all contribute to the hurdles small businesses face from local government. 

It is hard enough to turn an innovative idea into a successful small business, but these hurdles further complicate an entrepreneur’s start-up journey—and can even force some aspiring business owners, especially those with fewer resources and limited access to capital, to choose between giving up altogether or having to operate in the informal economy. 

To better understand the challenges small businesses face and to offer recommendations, we analyzed the codes of 20 large to mid-sized cities, interviewed entrepreneurs from across the country, and mapped out the real-world process of starting five common business types from the entrepreneur’s perspective.

Establishing a cheaper, faster, and simpler regulatory environment for small businesses is possible—and crucial. City officials can use the actionable reforms and best regulatory practices from across the country included in this report as a roadmap for streamlining rules in their own backyards. Cities should: 


Cut fees to lower the cost of doing business. This will open a pathway to entrepreneurship for all residents, including those from disadvantaged communities.


Streamline the compliance process and introduce one-stop shops to help entrepreneurs navigate rules on the books, allowing entrepreneurs to invest time in getting their business ventures off the ground rather than complying with unnecessary regulations.


Reduce the number of steps for starting a business to ensure that entrepreneurs, especially those without the resources to hire lawyers or expediters, do not get caught in the procedural weeds. 

Key Findings


Starting a business is already an expensive endeavor, but local regulations pile on additional costs.

  • For example, entrepreneurs who want to start a restaurant in the 20 cities surveyed must pay, on average, more than $4,949 in fees for permits and licenses.
  • To start a barbershop, applicants must pay, on average, 12 different fees to agency officials just to get up and running.


Complying with local rules consumes not just capital, but also an entrepreneur’s valuable time.

  • For example, aspiring bookstore owners in the 20 cities surveyed must submit, on average, more than nine applications and forms, and complete more than five steps in-person, often involving multiple visits to agency offices.
  • Home-based businesses that require special zoning approval from government must not only obtain a time-consuming permit—often after enduring a public hearing—but also must interact with nearly five different agencies before being allowed to open.


Starting a business involves navigating complex bureaucratic processes that are often unrelated to public health and safety.

  • For example, to open a barbershop in the 20 cities surveyed, an entrepreneur must, on average, complete 50 steps with eight different government agencies involved in the process. Many of these steps have little to do with sanitation or public safety, but still serve to trap aspiring barbers in a complex maze of rules and restrictions.
  • Even though they do not operate out of brick-and-mortar space, applicants for food truck licenses and permits must complete, on average, 32 steps with 10 forms and seven agencies involved in the process.