Appendix C: Relevant Prior Literature

StudyOccupation(s)Measure(s) of QualityRelationship of Licensing to Quality
Anderson, D. M., Brown, R., Charles, K. K., & Rees, D. I. (2020). Occupational licensing and maternal health: Evidence from early midwifery laws. Journal of Political Economy, 128(11), 4337–4383.
Barrios, J. M. (2022). Occupational licensing and accountant quality: Evidence from the 150-hour rule. Journal of Accounting Research, 60(1), 3–43. AccountantTime to promotion and tenure at a firmNo effect
Berger, M. C., & Toma, E. F. (1994). Variation in state education policies and effects on student performance. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 13(3), 477–491. scoresNegative
Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., & Wycoff, J. (2008). The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools (NBER Working Paper No. 14021). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. test scoresPositive
Carpenter, D. M. (2010). Blooming nonsense: Experiment reveals Louisiana’s florist licensing scheme as pointless and anti-competitive. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice. 
Carpenter, D. M. (2012). Testing the utility of a licensing policy: Evidence from a field experiment on occupational regulation. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 13(2), 28–41.
FloristJudges’ scoresNo effect
Deyo, D. (2017, January 8). Licensing and service quality: Evidence using Yelp consumer reviews [Paper presentation]. Barriers to Entry or Improving Consumer Welfare: An Assessment of Occupational Regulation, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.,  cosmetologist, manicurist, massage therapistYelp ratingsMixed
Erickson, A. C. (2016). Putting licensing to the test: How licenses for tour guides fail consumers—and guides. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice. Tour guideTripadvisor
No effect
Farronato, C., Fradkin, A., Larsen, B., & Brynjolfsson, E. (2020). Consumer protection in an online world: An analysis of occupational licensing (NBER Working Paper No. 26601). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Home
improvement (e.g., painter, interior
satisfaction and hiring decisions
No effect
Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school teacher certification status and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(2), 129–145. TeacherStudent test scoresMixed
Guntermann, K. L., & Smith, R. L. (1988). Licensing requirements, enforcement effort and complaints against real estate agents. The Journal of Real Estate Research, 3(2), 11–20. estate agentConsumer
No effect
Holen, A. (1978). The economics of dental licensing. Alexandria, VA: Public Research Institute. DentistMalpractice
premium and dental health
Johnson, L. L., & Loucks, C. (1986). The effect of state licensing regulations on the real estate brokerage industry. Real Estate Economics, 14(4), 567–582. Real estate brokerConsumer complaintsPositive
Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Economics of Education Review, 27(6), 615–631. TeacherStudent test scoresNo effect
Kleiner, M. M., & Kudrle, R. T. (2000). Does regulation affect economic outcomes? The case of dentistry. The Journal of Law and Economics, 43(2), 547–582. healthNo effect
Kleiner, M. M., Marier, A., Park, K. W., & Wing, C. (2016). Relaxing occupational licensing requirements: Analyzing wages and prices for a medical service. The Journal of Law and Economics, 59(2), 261–291. practitionerMortality rates and malpractice lawsuitsNo effect
Kleiner, M. M., & Petree, D. L. (1988). Unionism and licensing of public school teachers: Impact on wages and educational output. In R. B. Freeman & C. Ichniowski (Eds.), When public sector workers unionize (pp. 305–321). University of Chicago Press. and ACT scores and graduation ratesMixed
Kleiner, M. M., & Todd, R. M. (2009). Mortgage broker regulations that matter: Analyzing earnings, employment, and outcomes for consumers. In D. H. Autor (Ed.), Studies of labor market intermediation (pp. 183–231). University of Chicago Press. brokerForeclosure ratesNegative
Larsen, B. (2015). Occupational licensing and quality: Distributional and heterogeneous effects in the teaching profession. Stanford University and NBER. test scoresMixed
Law, M. T., & Kim, S. (2005). Specialization and regulation: The rise of professionals and the emergence of occupational licensing regulation. The Journal of Economic History, 65(3), 723–756. rates and malpractice lawsuitMixed
Maurizi, A. R. (1980). The impact of regulation on quality: The case of California contractors. In S. Rottenberg (Ed.), Occupational licensure and regulation (pp. 26–35). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.ContractorConsumer complaintsMixed
Meehan, B. J., & Stephenson, E. F. (2020). Reducing a barrier to entry: The 120/150 CPA licensing rule. Journal of Labor Research, 41, 382–402. exam pass rates and scoresNo effect
Pancak, K. A., & Sirmans, C. F. (2006). The effect of agency reform on real estate service quality. Journal of Housing Research, 15(1), 41–54.   Real estate agentDisciplinary
Paul, C. (1984). Physician licensure legislation and the quality of medical care. Atlantic Economic Journal, 12(4), 18–30. rates No effect
Powell, B., & Vorotnikov, E. (2012). Real estate continuing education: Rent seeking or improvement in service quality? Eastern Economic Journal, 38(1), 57–73. estate agentConsumer complaints and disciplinary actionsNo effect
Rupp, N. G., & Tan, K. M. (2022). An evaluation of legislation designed to improve airline pilots’ safety and performance. SSRN Paper. delaysMixed
Sass, T. R. (2015). Licensure and worker quality: A comparison of alternative routes to teaching. The Journal of Law & Economics, 58(1), 1–35. TeacherStudent test scoresMixed
Shilling, J. D., & Sirmans, C. F. (1988). The effects of occupational licensing on complaints against real estate agents. The Journal of Real Estate Research, 3(2), 1–9. estate agentConsumer complaintsPositive
Shuls, J. V., & Trivitt, J. R. (2015). Teacher effectiveness: An analysis of licensure screens. Educational Policy, 29(4), 645–675. test scores and licensing exam scoresMixed
Young, S. D. (1986). Accounting licensure, quality, and the “Cadillac effect.” Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 5(1), 5–19. AccountantInsurance premiumsNo effect