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Pennsylvania

License to Work: A National Study of Burdens from Occupational Licensing

License to Work: A National Study of Burdens from Occupational Licensing

Highlights

44 out of 102 moderate-income occupations licensed
51st most burdensome licensing laws
38th most extensively and onerously licensed state

(Last updated April 24, 2012)

Summary

Pennsylvania has the least burdensome licensing laws, but because it requires a license for 44 of the 102 low- to moderate-income occupations studied, it ranks as the 38th most broadly and onerously licensed state. Aspiring practitioners of these occupations pay $176 in fees, lose 113 days to training and take one exam.

For 23 of the 44 occupations, the state requires only fees. In five of these occupations, Pennsylvania's fees are the highest in the nation. Pennsylvania charges $2,500 in fees to become a gaming supervisor, more than five times the average of $449. The state charges $350 to become a gaming cage worker, gaming dealer, slot key person or a travel agent, which all average around $200 in the other states.

Twenty-one of the occupations Pennsylvania licenses are also licensed by less than half of the other states. This includes 12 contractor occupations, which require $50 in fees. Upholsterers are licensed in only seven states and must pay $50 to work in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania could assist low-income workers by reducing or eliminating barriers to entry, including fees.

Licensing Requirements

Burden RankOccupationNumber of States that LicenseFeesEducation/Experience (Days)ExamsMinimum GradeMinimum Age
1 Preschool Teacher 49 133 1,825 2 0 0
2 Athletic Trainer 46 320 1,460 1 0 0
3 Veterinary Technologist 37 235 730 1 0 0
4 Cosmetologist 51 149 292 2 10 16
5 Barber 50 159 292 2 8 16
6 Skin Care Specialist 50 159 70 2 10 16
6 Makeup Artist 36 159 70 2 10 16
8 Massage Therapist 39 300 117 3 0 18
9 Gaming Supervisor 23 2500 0 0 0 18
10 School Bus Driver 51 42 3 6 0 18
11 Teacher Assistant 29 45 0 1 12 0
12 Bus Driver (City/Transit) 51 42 0 5 0 18
13 Emergency Medical Technician 51 0 33 2 0 16
14 Truck Driver 51 42 0 4 0 18
15 Manicurist 50 149 47 2 0 0
16 Crane Operator 18 0 0 3 0 18
17 Pest Control Applicator 51 60 0 2 0 18
17 Vegetation Pesticide Handler 51 60 0 2 0 18
19 Gaming Cage Worker 22 350 0 0 0 18
19 Slot Key Person 21 350 0 0 0 18
19 Travel Agent 8 350 0 0 0 18
19 Gaming Dealer 24 350 0 0 0 18
23 Weigher 24 60 0 0 0 18
24 Auctioneer 33 220 5 1 0 0
25 Tank Tester 14 0 9 1 0 0
26 Mobile Home Installer 39 350 2 0 0 0
27 Animal Breeder 26 295 0 0 0 0
28 Milk Sampler 34 5 0 1 0 0
29 Taxidermist 26 100 0 0 0 0
30 Earth Driller 47 85 0 0 0 0
31 Painting Contractor (Residential) 10 50 0 0 0 0
31 Door Repair Contractor 35 50 0 0 0 0
31 Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential) 9 50 0 0 0 0
31 Terrazzo Contractor (Residential) 8 50 0 0 0 0
31 Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential) 11 50 0 0 0 0
31 Sheet Metal Contractor (Residential) 7 50 0 0 0 0
31 Insulation Contractor (Residential) 10 50 0 0 0 0
31 Carpenter/Cabinet Maker (Residential) 10 50 0 0 0 0
31 Glazier Contractor (Residential) 9 50 0 0 0 0
31 Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential) 9 50 0 0 0 0
31 Upholsterer 7 50 0 0 0 0
31 Floor Sander Contractor (Residential) 9 50 0 0 0 0
31 Mason Contractor (Residential) 10 50 0 0 0 0
44 Animal Trainer 20 45 0 0 0 0

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