Tables

Number of States that License 102 Lower-income Occupations

OccupationsNumber of States that License
Pest Control Applicator51
Emergency Medical Technician51
School Bus Driver51
Bus Driver (City/Transit)51
Vegetation Pesticide Handler51
Truck Driver51
Cosmetologist51
Skin Care Specialist50
Manicurist50
Barber50
Preschool Teacher49
Earth Driller47
Athletic Trainer46
Fisher41
HVAC Contractor (General/Commercial)40
Massage Therapist39
Mobile Home Installer39
Veterinary Technologist37
Security Guard37
Makeup Artist36
Door Repair Contractor35
Security Alarm Installer34
Fire Alarm Installer34
Milk Sampler34
Child Care Worker33
Auctioneer33
Iron/Steel Contractor (General/Commercial)31
Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (General/Commercial)30
Glazier Contractor (General/Commercial)30
Bill Collector Agency30
Drywall Installation Contractor (General/Commercial)30
Cement Finishing Contractor (General/Commercial)29
Midwife29
Insulation Contractor (General/Commercial)29
Pipelayer Contractor29
Terrazzo Contractor (General/Commercial)29
Floor Sander Contractor (General/Commercial)29
Teacher Assistant29
Mason Contractor (General/Commercial)29
Painting Contractor (General/Commercial)28
Sheet Metal Contractor (General/Commercial)28
Paving Equipment Operator Contractor27
Animal Breeder26
Taxidermist26
Gaming Dealer24
Weigher24
Coach (School Sports)24
Gaming Supervisor23
Optician22
Gaming Cage Worker22
Travel Guide21
Slot Key Person21
Animal Trainer20
Crane Operator18
Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester18
Animal Control Officer17
Sign Language Interpreter16
Cathodic Protection Tester16
Tank Tester14
Bartender13
Locksmith13
Pharmacy Technician12
Taxi Driver/Chauffeur12
Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential)11
Insulation Contractor (Residential)10
Painting Contractor (Residential)10
Landscape Worker10
Mason Contractor (Residential)10
Carpenter/Cabinet Maker (Residential)10
Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential)9
Floor Sander Contractor (Residential)9
Farm Labor Contractor9
Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential)9
Funeral Attendant9
Glazier Contractor (Residential)9
Travel Agent8
Terrazzo Contractor (Residential)8
Dental Assistant7
Tree Trimmer7
Upholsterer7
Social and Human Service Assistant7
Packager7
Sheet Metal Contractor (Residential)7
Title Examiner6
HVAC Contractor (Residential)5
Shampooer5
Psychiatric Technician4
Interior Designer4
Cross-connection Survey Inspector4
Court Clerk4
Home Entertainment Installer3
Dietetic Technician3
Electrical Helper2
Nursery Worker2
Log Scaler2
Psychiatric Aide2
Still Machine Setter2
Pipelayer Non-contractor1
Conveyor Operator1
Florist1
Fire Sprinkler System Tester1
Forest Worker1
Last updated April 24, 2012
General Population*Lower-Income Occupations
Workforce11.60%**
Male52.53%58.13%
Female47.47%41.87%
Average age4242
White68.42%61.28%
Hispanic13.97%20.53%
Black10.68%13.42%
Asian4.99%2.73%
American Indian0.54%0.61%
Pacific Islander0.26%0.31%
Multi-race1.14%1.12%
Average Annual Income$46,734$29,526
Less than High School Degree9.53%15.70%
High School Degree26.75%40.30%
College but no BA28.87%31.70%
Bachelors Degree22.50%9.71%
Masters Degree8.86%2.28%
Professional Degree1.69%0.26%
Doctorate1.80%0.06%
*Taken from the Current Population Survey, March 2011.
**This is the percentage of the total workforce.
Last updated April 24, 2012

Occupations Ranked by Average Burden

RankOccupationsNumber of States that LicenseAverage FeesAverage Education & Experience (Days)Average ExamsMinimum Grade LevelMinimum Age
1Interior Designer4$3642190100
2Preschool Teacher49$1031728202
3Athletic Trainer46$4431460103
4Social and Human Service Assistant7$2001251105
5HVAC Contractor (General/Commercial)40$250891106
6Optician22$18471031012
7Midwife29$619700157
8Dietetic Technician3$30800106
9Veterinary Technologist37$209710215
10Earth Driller47$177704117
11Conveyor Operator1$142730100
12Security Alarm Installer34$213535118
13Barber50$1304152714
14Sheet Metal Contractor (General/Commercial)28$292507105
15Glazier Contractor (General/Commercial)30$287500104
16Mason Contractor (General/Commercial)29$287491104
17Cosmetologist51$1423722813
18Fire Alarm Installer34$230486115
19Cross-connection Survey Inspector4$152463135
20Pipelayer Contractor29$301466104
21Iron/Steel Contractor (General/Commercial)31$329459105
22Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (General/Commercial)30$286450104
23Paving Equipment Operator Contractor27$332446104
24Drywall Installation Contractor (General/Commercial)30$284426104
25School Bus Driver51$962936019
26Cement Finishing Contractor (General/Commercial)29$283415104
27Door Repair Contractor35$282407105
28Painting Contractor (General/Commercial)28$285404104
29Terrazzo Contractor (General/Commercial)29$276403104
30Insulation Contractor (General/Commercial)29$277390104
30Floor Sander Contractor (General/Commercial)29$277390104
32HVAC Contractor (Residential)5$385365104
33Tree Trimmer7$174369208
34Log Scaler2$25365209
35Psychiatric Technician4$1622471125
36Landscape Worker10$117334100
37Crane Operator18$1952213017
38Skin Care Specialist50$1201492914
39Home Entertainment Installer3$1012432012
40Makeup Artist36$1161382914
41Mobile Home Installer39$337245106
42Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential)9$309245104
43Terrazzo Contractor (Residential)8$309230105
44Teacher Assistant29$821521122
45Psychiatric Aide2$0228160
46Pharmacy Technician12$671940610
47Coach (School Sports)24$54254022
48Cathodic Protection Tester16$1,44299201
49Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential)11$261232102
50Massage Therapist39$1811391514
51Sheet Metal Contractor (Residential)7$320209103
52Pest Control Applicator51$90187209
53Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential)9$282203102
54Bus Driver (City/Transit)51$92865019
55Court Clerk4$12195035
56Painting Contractor (Residential)10$283184104
57Carpenter/Cabinet Maker (Residential)10$277184104
58Insulation Contractor (Residential)10$277184104
59Floor Sander Contractor (Residential)9$278164104
60Auctioneer33$3071001312
61Tank Tester14$241162103
62Sign Language Interpreter16$7722356
63Truck Driver51$83654018
64Mason Contractor (Residential)10$277147104
65Manicurist50$9187260
66Glazier Contractor (Residential)9$300123104
67Emergency Medical Technician51$85332417
68Vegetation Pesticide Handler51$8393209
69Locksmith13$147921110
70Animal Trainer20$931051010
71Child Care Worker33$8370416
72Title Examiner6$26961103
73Security Guard37$89380116
74Travel Guide21$19158109
75Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester18$13349120
76Dental Assistant7$5055122
77Gaming Supervisor23$44900015
78Bill Collector Agency30$47124013
79Funeral Attendant9$1672046
80Shampooer5$67231010
81Pipelayer Non-contractor1$19500018
82Taxi Driver/Chauffeur12$7431015
83Bartender13$2410020
84Slot Key Person21$19900014
85Gaming Cage Worker22$17500014
86Electrical Helper2$5810017
87Gaming Dealer24$16700013
88Animal Control Officer17$1164108
89Fisher41$4030002
90Florist1$2250100
91Fire Sprinkler System Tester1$2200100
92Weigher24$420008
93Forest Worker1$1290100
94Travel Agent8$2110002
95Farm Labor Contractor9$1620002
96Still Machine Setter2$420100
97Milk Sampler34$180101
98Upholsterer7$1160000
99Animal Breeder26$920001
100Taxidermist26$670000
101Nursery Worker2$550000
102Packager7$540000
Last updated April 24, 2012

Occupations Ranked by Number and Average Burden of Licensed Combined

RankOccupationsNumber of States that LicenseAverage FeesAverage Education & Experience (Days)Average ExamsMinimum Grade LevelMinimum Age
Tier 1
1Preschool Teacher49$1031728202
2Athletic Trainer46$4431460103
3Earth Driller47$177704117
4Cosmetologist51$1423722813
5Barber50$1304152714
6School Bus Driver51$962936019
7HVAC Contractor (General/Commercial)40$250891106
8Skin Care Specialist50$1201492914
9Pest Control Applicator51$90187209
10Bus Driver (City/Transit)51$92865019
11Truck Driver51$83654018
12Emergency Medical Technician51$85332417
13Vegetation Pesticide Handler51$8393209
14Manicurist50$9187260
15Veterinary Technologist37$209710215
Tier 2
16Mobile Home Installer39$337245106
17Security Alarm Installer34$213535118
18Massage Therapist39$1811391514
19Fire Alarm Installer34$230486115
20Door Repair Contractor35$282407105
21Midwife29$619700157
22Makeup Artist36$1161382914
23Fisher41$4030002
24Iron/Steel Contractor (General/Commercial)31$329459105
25Security Guard37$89380116
26Glazier Contractor (General/Commercial)30$287500104
27Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (General/Commercial)30$286450104
28Drywall Installation Contractor (General/Commercial)30$284426104
29Mason Contractor (General/Commercial)29$287491104
30Pipelayer Contractor29$301466104
31Auctioneer33$3071001312
32Sheet Metal Contractor (General/Commercial)28$292507105
33Cement Finishing Contractor (General/Commercial)29$283415104
34Terrazzo Contractor (General/Commercial)29$276403104
35Floor Sander Contractor (General/Commercial)29$277390104
35Insulation Contractor (General/Commercial)29$277390104
37Child Care Worker33$8370416
38Painting Contractor (General/Commercial)28$285404104
39Milk Sampler34$180101
40Paving Equipment Operator Contractor27$332446104
41Teacher Assistant29$821521122
42Optician22$18471031012
43Bill Collector Agency30$47124013
44Coach (School Sports)24$54254022
Tier 3
45Animal Breeder26$920001
46Taxidermist26$670000
47Gaming Dealer24$16700013
48Weigher24$420008
49Gaming Supervisor23$44900015
50Gaming Cage Worker22$17500014
51Travel Guide21$19158109
52Slot Key Person21$19900014
53Animal Trainer20$931051010
54Crane Operator18$1952213017
55Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester18$13349120
56Cathodic Protection Tester16$1,44299201
57Sign Language Interpreter16$7722356
58Animal Control Officer17$1164108
59Tank Tester14$241162103
60Locksmith13$147921110
61Pharmacy Technician12$671940610
62Bartender13$2410020
63Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential)11$261232102
64Taxi Driver/Chauffeur12$7431015
65Landscape Worker10$117334100
66Social and Human Service Assistant7$2001251105
67Painting Contractor (Residential)10$283184104
68Carpenter/Cabinet Maker (Residential)10$277184104
69Insulation Contractor (Residential)10$277184104
70Mason Contractor (Residential)10$277147104
71Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential)9$309245104
72Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential)9$282203102
73Floor Sander Contractor (Residential)9$278164104
74Glazier Contractor (Residential)9$300123104
75Funeral Attendant9$1672046
76Terrazzo Contractor (Residential)8$309230105
77Farm Labor Contractor9$1620002
78Interior Designer4$3642190100
79Tree Trimmer7$174369208
80Travel Agent8$2110002
81Sheet Metal Contractor (Residential)7$320209103
82Dental Assistant7$5055122
83Upholsterer7$1160000
84Packager7$540000
85Title Examiner6$26961103
86HVAC Contractor (Residential)5$385365104
Tier 4
87Shampooer5$67231010
88Cross-connection Survey Inspector4$152463135
89Psychiatric Technician4$1622471125
90Court Clerk4$12195035
91Dietetic Technician3$30800106
92Home Entertainment Installer3$1012432012
93Log Scaler2$25365209
94Psychiatric Aide2$0228160
95Electrical Helper2$5810017
96Still Machine Setter2$420100
97Nursery Worker2$550000
98Conveyor Operator1$142730100
99Pipelayer Non-contractor1$19500018
100Florist1$2250100
101Fire Sprinkler System Tester1$2200100
102Forest Worker1$1290100
TierFeesEducation/Experience (Days)ExamsGradeAgeNumber of Licensed States
Tier 1$142464221148
Tier 2$25431912631
Tier 3$23611310713
Tier 4$872251262
StateNumber of Low-Income
Occupations Licensed
Percentage of 102 Low-Income
Occupations Licensed
Arizona6463%
Connecticut5453%
Colorado2827%
Delaware4948%
Georgia3332%
Hawaii4342%
Iowa5453%
Idaho4746%
Kansas3433%
Louisiana7170%
Massachusetts3736%
Maine3938%
Michigan4241%
Missouri3130%
North Carolina4847%
Nebraska4544%
New Hampshire3433%
New Jersey4847%
New York3332%
Ohio3130%
Oklahoma2928%
Pennsylvania4443%
Rhode Island4948%
Tennessee5352%
Vermont2726%
West Virginia4948%
Florida4544%
Illinois4039%
Kentucky2726%
Texas3433%
Virginia4645%
Washington5453%
Alabama4746%
Arkansas5251%
California6261%
Maryland4241%
Minnesota3635%
Montana4443%
New Mexico5251%
Nevada5554%
Oregon5958%
Washington, D.C.4140%
Indiana2827%
Mississippi5554%
North Dakota4039%
South Carolina5150%
South Dakota2827%
Utah4645%
Wisconsin4746%
Wyoming2424%
Alaska4443%
RankStatesNumber of Low-Income Occupations LicensedAverage FeesAverage Education & Experience (Days)Average ExamsMinimum Grade LevelMinimum Age
1Hawaii43$3677242113
2Arkansas52$212689136
3Nevada55$505601227
4Florida45$2746031215
5Arizona64$455599225
6Oregon59$2675681113
7California62$3005491212
8Virginia46$1534621111
9Vermont27$174402238
10Maryland42$198446117
11Oklahoma29$116416229
12New Mexico52$158413128
13Utah46$269417204
14South Carolina51$166402117
15Kentucky27$230324248
16Ohio31$137341139
17Texas34$3043262210
18Georgia33$167324238
19New York33$1452832211
20New Jersey48$179292136
21Michigan42$1982561314
22South Dakota28$166271229
23Washington, D.C.41$240311116
24Minnesota36$164290225
25Massachusetts37$181293116
26Indiana28$1472511212
27West Virginia49$132247227
28New Hampshire34$209230228
29North Carolina48$180250117
30Maine39$206226126
31Illinois40$2492031310
32Wyoming24$173196239
33Colorado28$1952271110
34Tennessee53$218222117
35Missouri31$1002201110
36Idaho47$122240115
37Rhode Island49$1642111112
38Alabama47$319182225
39Connecticut54$173230114
40Alaska44$373179116
41Washington54$152199117
42Delaware49$94195116
43Louisiana71$214163126
44Kansas34$88166125
45Mississippi55$198155225
46Iowa54$141181116
47North Dakota40$1071321213
48Wisconsin47$209145118
49Montana44$131133137
50Nebraska45$140147126
51Pennsylvania44$176113117
RankStatesNumber of Low-Income Occupations LicensedAverage FeesAverage Education & Experience (Days)Average ExamsMinimum Grade LevelMinimum Age
Tier 1
1Arizona64$455599225
2California62$3005491212
3Oregon59$2675681113
4Nevada55$505601227
5Arkansas52$212689136
6Hawaii43$3677242113
7Florida45$2746031215
8Louisiana71$214163126
Tier 2
9New Mexico52$158413128
10South Carolina51$166402117
11Virginia46$1534621111
12Utah46$269417204
13Tennessee53$218222117
14Maryland42$198446117
15Connecticut54$173230114
16New Jersey48$179292136
17West Virginia49$132247227
18Mississippi55$198155225
19Washington54$152199117
20Iowa54$141181116
21North Carolina48$180250117
22Rhode Island49$1642111112
Tier 3
23Idaho47$122240115
24Alabama47$319182225
25Delaware49$94195116
26Michigan42$1982561314
27Washington, D.C.41$240311116
28Wisconsin47$209145118
29Alaska44$373179116
30Illinois40$2492031310
31Nebraska45$140147126
32Texas34$3043262210
33Maine39$206226126
34Massachusetts37$181293116
35Montana44$131133137
36Minnesota36$164290225
37Georgia33$167324238
38Pennsylvania44$176113117
39Ohio31$137341139
40New York33$1452832211
41Oklahoma29$116416229
42North Dakota40$1071321213
43New Hampshire34$209230228
44Vermont27$174402238
Tier 4
45Kentucky27$230324248
46Kansas34$88166125
47Missouri31$1002201110
48South Dakota28$166271229
49Indiana28$1472511212
50Colorado28$1952271110
51Wyoming24$173196239
TierFeesEducation/Experience (Days)ExamsGradeAgeOccupations Licensed
Tier 1$32354212956
Tier 2$17628911750
Tier 3$19223612839
Tier 4$14122122929